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中学生英语学习常见错误(二)
[ 录入者:cxhmq | 时间:2011-03-31 22:03:22 | 作者: | 来源: | 浏览:2164次 ]

                  

 

中学生英语学习常见错误(二)

 

 

C

    

 call

      [误] I'll call at Mr Brown.

      [正] I'll call on Mr Brown.

      [误] I'll call on Mr Brown's home.

      [正] I'll call at Mr Brown's home.

      [析] "拜访"讲时,at后面接访问地点,而on后面接访问的人。

      call on drop in visit

      call on比较正式的为公务的访问,如:We were called on by the old students. drop

      in则是比较随便的走走,顺便拜访,如:If you're free, drop in. visit则是更正式的外交访问或友好往来,如:My

      school's headmaster will visit America next week.

      can

      [误] A blind man can not judge colours.

      [正] A blind man cannot judge colours.

      [误] I cann't call for you at ten.

      [正] I can't call for you at ten.

      [析] can的否定形式应为cannotcan't.

      [误] It's only six o'clock. That mustn't be the postman.

      [正] It's only six o'clock. That can't be the postman.

      [析] must用来表示一种肯定的推断,如:She must have some problems. She keeps crying.

      但在否定句中则要用can't 要表示对过去的推测则要用"must+have+过去分词"的表达法,如:The lights have gone

      out.A fuse must have blown.而对过去的否定推测则多用"can't+have+过去分词",如:I don't think

      he can have heard you. Call again.

      [误] We could not help to laugh at once.

      [正] We could not help laughing at once.

      [正] We could not help but laugh at once.

      [析] "couldn't help+动名词"表示禁不住做了某事。但could not help butcould not

      but后面要加不带to的不定式,意思都是不得不去做某事.如:You could not (help) but respect him.

      can be able to

      canbe able to都可以用来表示能力,但can只有现在时与过去时,be able to则可用任何时态,如:He will be able to teach the child. 但要表示经过努力而达到的一次性动作则只能用be able to,如:He was finally able to jump over 2 meters. 或:The plane was able to fly over the mountain.

    

  

      但要注意的是这两个词都没有进行时态,而be able to后面不接不定式的被动态。

      can could

      cancould都可以用在现在时的口语中,只是用could更为礼貌,语气更委婉。如:Could you tell us a story?

      care

      [误] I don't care coffee.

      [正] I don't care for coffee.

      [误] Take care for your steps.

      [正] Take care of your steps.

      [析] care for"对某物感兴趣",而care of"关心,要当心某事",如:She didn't care for him. Take care of what you are doing.

      [误] I don't care where we will go if it doesn't rain.

      [正] I don't care where we go if it doesn't rain.

      [析] it doesn't matter, I don't care, I don't mind, in case引出的状语从句后面要用现在时表示将来。如:I've got a football in case we have time for a game.

    

     

      change

      [误] I want to change my camera with that one.

      [正] I want to change my camera for that one.

      [析] change for"以某物为交换物"。而change with则是"随……而变",如:The wood's colour changed with the season.

    

      cheap

      [误] A teacher's salary is generally very cheap.

      [正] A teacher's salary is generally very low.

      [析] 工资的高低要用lowcheap是指价格便宜,如果要讲物美价廉则要用not expensive, 如:This car is not expensive.

    

      choose

      [误] We each had to have a choose of A or B.

      [正] We each had to have a choice of A or B.

      [析] choice是名词,而choose是动词。

      class

      [误] The class is watching TV.

      [正] The class are watching TV.

      [析] class作主语时,如果作为整体讲则应用单数形式的谓语动词,如:The class was more than forty in number. 如考虑到具体的每个成员时则应用复数形式的谓语动词,如:The class are, in general, very bright.

     

      clean

      [误] Sorry, I didn't bought it here. I cleanly forgot.

      [正] Sorry, I didn't bought it here. I clean forgot.

      [析] clean可以作为副词讲,其意为"完全",而cleanly则意为"正确地""干净利落地",如:The knife doesn't cut cleanly. clean作为形容词讲时意为"清洁的""干净的",如:Her face is not clean now.

    

      clever

      [误] I'm not clever in English.

      [正] I'm not clever at English.

      [析] clever at是固定搭配,表示在某方面有特长。

      close

      [误] It is cold outside. Please keep the door close.

      [正] It is cold outside. Please keep the door closed.

      [析]

      这里的close是动词,意为"关闭",而keep后要加形容词,所以要用close的过去分词形式closed作形容词。作形容词用的close意为"近的""亲密的"。

      [误] Come closely so that I can see you.

      [正] Come close so that I can see you.

      [误] Good teaching and good testing are close related.

      [正] Good teaching and good testing are closely related.

      [析]

      close,closely同样可以作副词用,但其意义不同,close"靠近""接近"之意,而closely则是"紧密""严密""密切"之意。

      [误] My school was quite close from my home.

      [正] My school was quite close to my home.

      [析] "与……接近"close to…,例如:

      He was close to fifty.

      There is a bus stop close to the station.

      close shut turn

      shutclose是同义词,如close the doorshut the door. 但要讲把某人关在门外时则只能用shut somebody out而不能用close,因shut语气较强,并含有隔离之意。而turn off是指关上电视、电灯、煤气之类,有切断之意。

     

      cloth

      [误] The children wear very good cloth to go to school.

      [正] The children wear very good clothes to go to school.

      [误] I need a lot of clothing.

      I'm going to make a new cloth.

      [正] I need a lot of cloth.

      I'm going to make a new dress.

      [析] cloth"""布料",没有复数形式。一块布料是a piece of cloth,

      clothes统指衣服,是复数名词,"一套衣服"要讲a suit of clothes 如果是"一件件衣服"应讲shirt, dress, sweater等。而clothing是衣物的总称,是不可数名词。例如:This clothing is needed in warm countries.Her clothes are made of fine cloth.英语中的dress是指比较正式的服装,如a school dress(校服)a student dress(学生套装)a working dress(工作服)

    

     

   

      coffee

      [误] Please give me two waters.

      [正] Please give me two coffees.

      [正] Please give me two cups of water.

      [析] 虽然coffee, water,

      tea等都是物质名词,但是只有coffee可用coffees取代若干杯coffee,而其他的却不行,其前要加a cup ofa glass of.

 

      colour(color)

      [误] Colours of flowers are red, yellow and white.

      [正] Flowers are red, yellow and white.

      [析] 中文的"花的颜色有红色、黄色和白色",若译为英文Colours of flowers are…,就显得重复了。

      [误] I like green colour.

      [正] I like green.

      [正] I like colour green.

      [析] colour green中的colourgreen的同位语,所以这种说话方式英语是可以接受的。

      come

      [误] I came across with an old friend in the street yesterday.

      [正] I came across an old friend in the street yesterday.

      [析] come across"偶然碰见、遇见",要直接加宾语,如:I've just come across a beautiful poem in this magazine.

   

      [误] Where do you come from?

      I come from the station.

      [正] Where did you come from?

      I came from the station.

      [正] Where do you come from?

      I come from China.

      [析] Where do you come from?意为"你是什么地方的人?"而Where did you come

      from?则是"你从何处来?"

      [误] The stars are coming out from the cloud.

      [正] The stars are coming out of the cloud.

      [析] come out of意为"从……地方出来"。

      come in come into enter

      come income into的意义相同,但come into后面要加宾语,而come in后面不用宾语。如I found someone came into my room. The door opened and the child came in.

    

      enter常作为及物动词使用,如:The bus entered the English tunnel.

      congratulate

      [误] I want to congratulate you for your success with all my heart.

      [正] I want to congratulate you on your success with all my heart.

      [析] 动词congratulate somebody on

      something"向某人祝贺某事"。其名词congratulation在用时一般要用复数,如:I offered him my congratulations on his success. 又如:Congratulations!

    

     

      cook

      [误] My father is a good cooker.

      [正] My father is a good cook.

      [析] 很多动词加上er则变为执行该动作的一种人,如workworker,teachteacher. cook即是动词"做饭",同时名词也是"厨师"。而cooker则是"厨具""炊具"之意。如:I will cook the dinner. I bought a good press cooker(高压锅)

    

   

      corner

      [误] There is a post office in the corner of the street.

      [正] There is a post office at the corner of the street.

      [误] A girl sat at the corner of the room.

      [正] A girl sat in the corner of the room.

      [析] in the corner是在建筑物内部的角上,而at the corner是在外部的角上,如:There is a big tree at the corner of the building.

    

      cost

      [误] I cost ten dollars for the book.

      [正] I spent ten dollars on the book.

      [误] I cost two hours to do my homework.

      [正] It took me two hours to do my homework.

      [析] cost, spend.

      take都可以作"花费"讲,但用法不同。cost的用法是"something+cost+somebody+时间或金钱",如:The book cost me ten dollars. spend的用法是"somebody+spend+时间+(in)doing something",如:I spent two hours (in) writing this book. "somebody+spend+金钱+on something",如:I spend two dollars on this book.

      take的用法则要用逻辑主语it:"It+takes+somebody+时间+to do something", 如:It took me an hour to clean the classroom.

     

    

     

     

      country

      [误] You can find cows in a country.

      [正] You can find cows in the country.

      [析] country即可作"国家"讲,也可作"农村"讲。当作"农村"讲时,一定要加定冠词,而且只有单数形式。例如:

      [误] Farmers live in the countries.

      [正] Farmers live in the country.

      [析] 但作为"国家"讲时则可有单、复数形式,例如:Japan is an Asian country. Japan, China, and India are Asian countries.另外,country一般指的是地理概念上的国家,如:New Zealand is an agricultural country. nation多指民族组成的国家,如:The Chinese

     

 nation(中华民族)state多侧重于政权方面的区域、国家范围,如:the state farm(国营农场)。

      cross

      [误] There are traffic lights at the cross.

      [正] There are traffic lights at the crossing.

      [析] cross作为名词讲时是十字架、十字形的东西,如:Red Cross(红十字会)。

      [误] The little boy is going to across the street.

      [正] The little boy is going to cross the street.

      [析] across是副词或介词,但不能作动词用。

      cross pass

    cross是指横过某地,如:He crossed the square. pass则强调从某物体旁经过,如:I mailed some letters when I passed the post office.

     

      crowd

      [误] The room soon was crowded by people.

      [正] The room soon was crowded with people.

      [析] crowded在这句话中应作为形容词,所以这句话不是被动语态而是系表结构,如:The room was crowded with books.

     

      cup

      [误] A silver glass was given to the winner.

      [正] A silver cup was given to the winner.

      [误] My mother was looking for the whisky cup.

      [正] My mother was looking for the whisky glass.

      [析] glass一般指由玻璃制成的器皿,而cup多指用陶瓷或金属制成的杯子,且cup尤其用在奖杯上。喝酒多用的是玻璃制成的杯子,如我们讲I

      drink a glass of wine at supper. 而不讲I drink a cup of wine at supper.

 

      D

 

      dance

      [误] We'll invite you and your wife to a dance party.

      [正] We'll invite you and your wife to a dancing party.

      [正] We'll invite you and your wife to a dance.

      [正] We'll invite you and your wife to a ball.(美语中常用ball作为舞会。)

      date

      [误] He studied ten hours a date.

      [正] He studied ten hours a day.

      [析] date是指具体日期。如问What's the date today? 应回答具体日期:"October 1st

      1998."day是指1(24小时)。如What day is today? 问的是星期几,应回答"It's Sunday."

      [误] Today's date is January first. 1998.

      [正] Today's date is January 1 1998.

      [正] Today's date is January 1st 1998.

      [析] 在日期书写中不要用序数词全写,而要用1st 2nd 3rd……如果一定要用序数词,其顺序应为:It is the first of

      January.

      day

      [误] This is a book about every day English.

      [正] This is a book about everyday English.

      [正] This is an everyday English book.

      [误] We go to school everyday.

      [正] We go to school every day.

      [析] everyday是形容词,意为"日常的",而every day则是"每天""天天"之意。

      dead

      [误] My father has died for ten years.

      [正] My father has been dead for ten years.

      [析] die是瞬间动词,它可以用于完成时,如:My father has died.

      但用于完成时不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。它也可以用于过去时,如:My father died three years ago

      [误] We'll always remember the deads who were killed in the war.

      [正] We'll always remember the dead who were killed in the war.

      [析] 形容词前如加定冠词表示一类人,如the rich(富人)the sick(病人)the

      poor(穷人),其后的谓语动词要用复数,如:The rich are not always happy.

      dead deadly

      dead在某些词组里是"完全""的确"的意思,如dead right, dead tired, dead

      sure。而deadly则是"致命的",如:The rich man had many deadly enemies. 又如:Cancer is a

      deadly disease.

      dead died

      dead是形容词,如:Mrs Ginty was dead. died是动词die的过去式及过去分词,如:She died in

      1960.但英语中如表达出对某人去世的伤感说法是pass away, 如:My father passed away, this morning.

      deer

      [误] In the zoo, there are many deers.

      [正] In the zoo, there are many deer.

      [析] deer是单、复数同形的词,如:one deertwo deer,这样的名词还有fishsheep等。但如果讲There are many fishes here. 这句话应译为"这里有许多种鱼类。"而不应译为"这里有很多鱼。"

    

      desk

      [误] The boy sat in his desk.

      [正] The boy sat at his desk.

      [析] 在课桌旁坐着应用介词at, at desk 则应译为"在学习"at table应译为"在吃饭"。

      die

      [误] In South Africa many people died from cancer.

      [正] In South Africa many people died of cancer.

      [误] The old man died of overwork.

      [正] The old man died from overwork.

      [析] 死于疾病应用die of,而死于某种外因事故则多用from.

      [误] His mother is died.

      [正] His mother is dead.

      [误] The old woman was dead at the age of seventy.

      [正] The old woman died at the age of seventy.

      [析] dead是形容词,而die是动词。形容词表示状态,动词则表示动作。

      [误] He died in a traffic accident.

      [正] He was killed in a traffic accident.

      [析] 由于事故而造成的死亡一般用to be killed.

      [误] When the doctor camethe old man had already died.

      [正] When the doctor camethe old man was already dead.

      [正] The old man died before the doctor came.

      different

      [误] My room is different with yours.

      [正] My room is different from yours.

      [误] The village is very different with what it was.

      [正] The village is very different from what it was.

      [析] different from"与……不同"之意。

      difficult

      [误] English is very difficult to be learned.

      [正] English is very difficult to learn.

      [误] He learned physics is difficult.

      [正] It is very difficult for him to learn physics.

      [析] 要学习英语的表达法而不要生硬地按字去译中文。It is difficult for somebody to do something."对于某人来说做某事很困难。"

    

      difficulty

      [误] There was little difficulty to find him.

      [正] There was little difficulty in finding him.

      [析] 这种用法还有trouble, difficulty (trouble) in doing something.

      dinner

      [误] When did you have the supper?

      [正] When did you have supper?

      [析] 英语中一日三餐前无冠词,例如:

      [误] I had a lunch at 12 o'clock.

      [正] I had lunch at 12 o'clock.

      [析] 在某些特定场合,如指某次宴会,则要加冠词,如:The dinner was given in honour of the guest.

      dress

      [误] My father bought a new dress for himself yesterday.

      [正] My father bought a new suit for himself yesterday.

      [析] 一般来讲男套装用suit,女服则用dress;作男服的服装店是tailor shop (tailor's),

      而做女装的服装店是dressmaker's.

      [误] The mother dressed the clothes on her child.

      [正] The mother dressed her child.

      [析] dress作及物动词当"穿衣服"讲时,其后不能接衣服而只能接人,如:The boy is still too young to dress himself. 但作为一种穿着打扮的状态时,则多用其过去分词作形容词,如:He is not dressed in his new suit.She is dressed in red. 词组dress up是过节日时应服装整齐,如:They dressed up for the holiday.

      

     

   

      dress have on put on wear

      要区别这几个动词需分清是表示动作的动词还是表示状态的动词。表示状态的动词是have onwear,如:He has on a white coat. He was wearing heavy shoes. put on则表示穿衣的动作,如:Put on your coat,it is cold outside.dress即可以作状态又可以作动作,作动作讲时其后面接人而不能接衣服,作穿着状态时则多用dressed的形式。如:I saw a lady dressed in red. I saw a girl dressing herself.

    

   

    

      drop

      [误] The students fell their voice.

      [正] The students dropped their voice.

      [析] dropfall都可以表示"落下、掉下"之意,有时可以互换,如:The dictionary fell (dropped) from  the table. drop还可以作及物动词,而fall一般只能作不及物动词。

   

      [误] I shall drop in you.

      [正] I shall drop in on you.

      [析] drop in是随便拜访某人,而其后要接人时应加介词on再加人称。

      during

      [误] During I was sickI couldn't eat well.

      [正] While I was sickI couldn't eat well.

      [析] during后不能接从句,而whenwhile后可接从句。

      [误] I have been studying English during three days.

      [正] I have been studying English for three days.

      [析]

      during不能表达一个动作持续多长的时间,而只能表达在某段时间内某事件的发生。即带有由during引导的时间状语的句子只能用过去时,不能用完成时。

  

 

 

 

  

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